This study aims to contribute substantially to the collection of accurate surveillance data on HIV drug resistance among adults in Kampala, Uganda.

HIV-infected adults that previously participated in the RHINOS study (see also “past projects”) and were either treatment experienced and diagnosed with virological failure, or treatment-naïve and diagnosed with pretreatment HIV drug resistance mutations, are currently being invited to participate in this follow-up study. HIV drug resistance testing is performed in all patients with persistent virological failure.

An optimized treatment plan will then be developed by the study team and the clinic physician in accordance with national treatment guidelines.